The figure shows five animal-parasite interactions for which evidence has linked climate change to alterations in disease risk.
(A) Black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, vectors of Lyme disease, are attached to the ears of a white-footed mouse. Milder climates have lead to more rapid Lyme transmission in people.
(B) Caribbean coral have been affected by loss of symbionts, white plague disease and ciliate infection during the abnormal warming of the Caribbean waters in 2010.
(C) Malformed leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) due to the infection of the flatworm R. ondatrae.
(D) Infection of monarchs butterflies by the protozoan O. elektroscirrha (inset) increases in parts of the U.S. because milder winter climates and the establishment of exotic mildweed species.
(E) Caribou and reindeer may have a reduced risk of infection risk with the nematode O. gruehneri (inset shows eggs and larvae) during the hottest part of the Arctic summer as a result of warming,
Figure from Altizer et al., Science